SYLLABUS FOR PRELIMINARY AND FINAL EXAMINATION OF
ALL INDIA PRE-MEDICAL/PRE-DENTAL ENTRANCE EXAMINATION ( AIPMT / PMPD ) 2012
Unit : 1 Introduction and Measurement
What is Physics? Scope and excitement; Physics in relation to science, society and
technology; Need for measurement of physical quantities, units for measurement, systems of
units-SI : fundamental and derived units. Dimensions of physical quantities. Dimensional
analysis and its applications. Orders of magnitude, Accuracy and errors in measurement –
random and instrumental errors, Significant figures and rounding off the numbers.
Graphs, Trigonometric functions, Concepts of differentiation and integration.
Unit : 2 Description of Motion in One Dimension
Objects in motion in one dimension, Motion in straight line, Uniform and non-uniform
motion, its graphical representation and formulae, speed and velocity, relative velocity,
average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time graph,
position-time graph and their formulae. Relations for uniformly accelerated motion with
examples. Acceleration in one-dimensional motion.
Unit : 3 Description of Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
Vectors and scalars quantities, vectors in two and three dimensions, vector addition and
multiplication by a real number, null-vector and its properties. Resolution of a vector in a
plane, rectangular components. Scalar and vector products. Motion in two dimensions, cases
of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion, general relation among
position-velocity-acceleration for motion in a plane and uniform circular motion. Motion of
objects in three dimensional space (elementary ideas).
Unit : 4 Laws of Motion
Force and inertia, first law of motion. Momentum, second law of motion, impulse, examples
of different kinds of forces in nature. Third law of motion, conservation of momentum, rocket
propulsion. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic frictions, laws of friction,
rolling friction, lubrication, Inertial and non-inertial frames (elementary ideas).
Unit : 5 Work, Energy and Power
Work done by a constant force and by a variable force, unit of work, energy and power.
Work Energy Theorem. Elastic and in-elastic collisions in one and two dimensions. Notions
of potential energy, conservation of mechanical energy : gravitational potential energy, and
its conversion to kinetic energy, potential energy of a spring. Conservative forces. Different
forms of energy, mass-energy equivalence, conservation of energy.
Unit : 6 Rotational MotionCentre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.
Centre of mass of rigid body, general motion of a rigid body, nature of rotational motion,
rotational motion of a single particle in two dimensions only, torque, angular momentum and
its geometrical and physical meaning, conservation of angular momentum, examples of
circular motion (car on a level circular road, car on banked road, pendulum swinging in a
vertical plane). Moment of inertia, its physical significance, moment inertia of uniform bodies
with simple geometrical shapes, parallel axis and perpendicular axis theorem (statements
only), Comparison between translatory (linear) and rotational motion.
Unit : 7 Gravitation
Acceleration due to gravity, one and two dimensional motion under gravity. Universal law of
gravitation, inertial and gravitational mass, variations in the acceleration due to gravity of the
earth, statement of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, orbital velocity, geostationary satellites,
gravitational potential, gravitational potential energy near the surface of earth, escape
Unit : 8 Heat and Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium and temperature ( zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and
internal energy. Specific heat, specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure of ideal
gas and relation between them. First law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic state, equation
of state and isothermals, pressure-temperature phase diagram. Thermodynamic processes
(reversible, irreversible, isothermal, adiabatic). Carnot cycle, second law of thermodynamics,
efficiency of heat engines. Entropy. Transfer of heat : conduction, convection and radiation.
Newton ’s law of cooling.
Thermal conductivity. Black body radiation, Wien’s law, Solar constant and surface
temperature of the sun, Stefan’s law,
Unit : 9 Oscillations
Periodic and oscillatory motions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation of
motion. Oscillations due to a spring, kinetic energy and potential energy in S.H.M., Simple
pendulum, physical concepts of forced oscillations, resonance and damped oscillations;
Unit : 10 Waves
Longitudinal and transverse waves and wave motion, speed of progressive wave. Principle of
superposition of waves; reflection of waves, harmonic waves (qualitative treatment only),
standing waves. Normal modes and its graphical representation. Beats, Doppler effect.
Unit : 11 Electrostatics
Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation, unit of charge, Coulomb’s law, dielectric
constant, electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric potential – its physical
meaning, potential due to a di-pole, di-pole field and behaviour of dipole in a uniform (2-
dimensional) electric field. Flux, Statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find
electric field due to uniformly charged simple systems. Conductors and insulators, presence of
free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Capacitance (parallel plate), Dielectric
material and its effect on capacitance (concept only), capacitances in series and parallel,
energy of a capacitor. Van de Graff generator.
Unit : 12 Current Electricity
Introduction (flow of current), sources of e.m.f., cells : simple, secondary, chargeable,
combinations of cells in series and parallel. Electric current, resistance of different materials,
temperature dependence, thermistor, specific resistivity, colour code for carbon resistors.
Ohm’s law and its limitation. Superconductors (elementary ideas). Kirchoff’s laws,
resistances in series and parallel, Wheatstone’s bridge, measurement of resistance.
Potentiometer – measurement of e.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell.Unit : 13 Thermal and Chemical Effects of Currents
Electric power, heating effects of current and Joule’s law. Thermoelectricity: Seebeck effect,
measurement of temperature using thermocouple. Chemical effects and Faraday’s laws of
Unit : 14 Magnetic Effect of Currents
Oersted’s observation, Biot-Savart’s law (magnetic field due to an element of current),
magnetic field due to a straight wire, circular loop and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in
a uniform magnetic field (Lorentz force), cyclotron (simple idea), forces and torques on
currents in a magnetic field, forces between two currents, definition of ampere, moving coil
galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter. Conversion of galvanometer into voltmeter/ammeter.
Unit : 15 Magnetism
Bar magnet (comparison with a solenoid), magnetic lines of force, torque on a bar magnet in a
magnetic field, earth’s magnetic field as a bar magnet, tangent galvanometer, vibration
magnetometer. Para, dia and ferromagnetic substances with examples (simple idea).
Electromagnets and permanent magnets.
Unit : 16 Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction, Lenz’s Law, induced emf, self and mutual
inductance. Alternating current, and voltage, impedance and reactance; A.C. circuits
containing inductance, capacitance and resistance; phase relationships, and power in a.c.
circuits, L.C oscillations. Electrical machines and devices (transformer, induction coil,
generator, simple motors, choke and starter), eddy current.
Unit : 17 Electromagnetic Waves (Qualitative Treatment)
Electromagnetic oscillations, brief history of electromagnetic waves (Maxwell, Hertz, Bose,
Marconi). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio, micro-waves, infra-red, optical, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses, propagation of electromagnetic
waves in atmosphere.
Unit : 18 Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Ray optics as a limiting case of wave optics. Phenomena of reflection, refraction, and total
internal reflection. Optical fibre. Curved mirrors, lenses; mirror and lens formulae. Dispersion
by a prism. Spectrometer. Absorption and emission spectra. Scattering and formation of
rainbow. Telescope (astronomical), microscope, their magnifications and resolving powers.
Unit : 19 Electrons and Photons
Discovery of electron, e/m for an electron, electrical conduction in gases, photoelectric effect,
particle nature of light, Einstein’s photoelectric equation, photocells. Matter waves – wave
nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davison and Germer experiment.
Unit : 20 Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei
Rutherford model of the atom, Bohr model, energy quantization. Hydrogen spectrum.
Composition of nucleus, atomic masses, binding energy per nucleon of a nucleus, its variation
with mass number, isotopes, size of nucleus. Radioactivity : properties of a, b and g rays.
Mass energy relation, nuclear fission and fusion.
Unit : 21 Solids and Semiconductor Devices
Crystal structure-Unit cell; single, poly and liquid crystals (concepts only). Energy bands in
solids, difference between conductors, insulators and semi-conductors using band theory.
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, p-n junction, semiconductor diodes, junction
transistor, diode as rectifier, solar cell, photo diode, LED, Zener diode as a voltage regulator,
transistor as an amplifier and oscillator. Combination of gates. Elementary ideas about IC.CHEMISTRY
Unit : 1 Some basic concepts in Chemistry
Importance of Chemistry, physical quantities and their measurement in Chemistry, SI Units,
uncertainty in measurements and use of significant figures, Unit and dimensional
analysis, Matter and its nature, laws of chemical combinations, atomic, and molecular,
masses mole concept, molar masses, percentage composition and molecular formula,
Unit : 2 States of matter
Three states of matter, gaseous state, gas laws (Boyle’s Law and Charles Law), Avogadro’s
Law, Grahams’Law of diffusion, Dalton’s law of partial pressure, ideal gas equation, Kinetic
theory of gases, real gases and deviation from ideal behaviour, van der Waals’ equation,
liquefaction of gases and critical points, Intermolecular forces; liquids and solids.
Unit : 3 Atomic structure
Earlier atomic models (Thomson’s and Rutherford) , emission spectrum of hydrogen atom,
Bohr’s model, of hydrogen atom, Limitations of Bohr’s model, dual nature of matter and
radiation, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, quantum mechanical model of atom (quantum
designation of atomic orbitals and electron energy in terms of principal, angular momentum
and magnetic quantum numbers), electronic spin and spin quantum numbers, Pauli’s
exclusion principle, general idea of screening (constants) of outer electrons by inner electrons
in an atom, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, atomic orbitals and their pictorial representation,
electronic configurations of elements.
Unit : 4 Classification of elements and periodicity in properties
Need and genesis of classification of elements (from Doebereiner to Mendeleev), Modern
periodic law and present form of periodic table, Nomenclature of elements with atomic
number > 100, electronic configurations of elements and periodic table, electronic
configuration and types of elements and s, p, d and f blocks, periodic trends in properties of
elements (atomic size, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence/
oxidation states and chemical reactivity).
Unit : 5 Chemical energetics
Some basic concepts in thermodynamics, first law of thermodynamics, heat capacity,
measurement of DU and DH, calorimetry, standard enthalpy changes, thermochemical
equations, enthalpy changes during phase transformations, Hess’s Law, standard enthalpies of
formation, bond enthalpies and calculations based on them.
Unit : 6 Chemical bonding
Kossel -Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, ionic bonds, covalent bonds, polarity of
bonds and concept of electronegativity, valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory ,
shapes of simple molecules, valence bond theory, hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals
and shapes of molecules s and p bonds; Molecular orbital theory involving
homounclear diatomic molecules; Hydrogen-bonding.
Unit : 7 Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic equilibrium, law of chemical
equilibrium and equilibrium constant, homogeneous equilibrium, heterogenous
equilibrium, application of equilibrium constants, Relationship between reaction
quotient Q, equilibrium constant, K and Gibbs’ energy G; factors affecting equilibrium-Le
Chateliar’s principle.Ionic equilibrium
Acids, Bases and Salts and their ionization, weak and strong electrolytes degree of ionization
and ionization constants, concept of pH, ionic product of water, buffer solution, common ion
effect, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products.
Unit : 8 Redox reactions
Electronic concepts of reduction – oxidation, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing of
Unit : 9 Solid state Chemistry
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and
metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids; unit cells in two dimensional and three
dimensional lattices, calculation of density of a unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of
atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic
Unit : 10 Chemical thermodynamics
Spontaneous processes, energy and spontaneity , entropy and second law of thermodynamics,
concept of absolute entropy, Gibbs energy and spontaneity, Gibbs energy change and
Unit : 11 Solutions
Types of solutions, different units for expressing concentration of solution, mole fraction,
percentage (by volume and mass both), definitions of dilute solutions, vapour pressure of
solutions and Raoult’s Law, Colligative properties, lowering of vapour pressure, depression of
freezing point, elevation of boiling points and osmotic pressure, determination of
molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal values of molecular
masses, van’t Hoff factor. simple numerical problems.
Unit : 12 Chemical kinetics
Rate of chemical reactions, factors, affecting rates of reactions –concentration,
temperature and catalyst, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law and rate constant,
differential and integral forms of first order reaction, half-life (only zero and first order)
characteristics of first order reaction, effect of temperature on reactions, Arrhenius theory –
activation energy, collision theory of reaction rate (no derivation).
Unit : 13 Electrochemistry
Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variation
of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis
(elementary idea), electrolytic and galvanic cells, emf. of a cell, standard electrode potential,
Nernst equation, concentration cell, fuel cells, cell potential and Gibbs energy, dry cell and
Unit : 14 Surface chemistry
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,
catalysis, homogeneous and heterogeneous activity and selectivity, enzyme catalysis,
colloidal state, distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic,
lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids, properties of colloids, Tyndal effect,
Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsions – type of emulsions.
Unit :15 Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes of hydrogen, heavy water, hydrogen peroxidepreparation, reactions and structures; hydrides and their classification.
Unit :16 s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth metals):
Group 1 and Group 2 elementsElectronic configurations and general trends in physical and chemical properties, anomalous
properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds, sodium carbonate, sodium
hydroxide, sodium hydrogen carbonate and industrial uses of lime and limestone, biological
significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
Unit :17 General principles and processes of isolation of elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, reduction, (chemical and electrolytic
methods), and refining.
Occurrence and principles of extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe.
Unit :18 p-Block Elements
Introduction to p-block elements
Electronic configurations and general trends in properties, viz. atomic sizes, ionization
enthalpies, electronegativity values, electron gain enthalpies and oxidation states across the
periods and down the groups in the p-block.
Unique behaviour of the top element in each group of the block – the covalency limit and
overlap in some molecules (e.g. N2
) and its consequences; general
trend in catenation tendency down each group.
Group 13 – In addition to the general characteristics as outlined above,
properties and uses of aluminium, nature of hydrides/ halides and oxides; Properties,
structures and uses of diborane boron halides, aluminium chloride, borax, boric acid and
Group 14 – In addition to the general characteristics; carbon – catenation, allotropic forms
(diamond and graphite), properties and structures of oxides; silicon – silicon tetrachloride, and
structures and uses of silicates, silicones and zeolites.
Group 15 – In addition to the general characteristics, the general trends in the nature and
structures of hydrides, halides and oxides of these elements. Preparation and properties of
ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and halides of phosphorus, structures of the oxoacids of
Group 16 – In addition to the general characteristics, preparations, properties and uses of
dioxygen, simple oxides, ozone; sulphur – allotropic forms, compounds of sulphur,
preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid, industrial preparations
of sulphuric acid, structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group 17 – In addition to the general characteristics, occurrence, trends in physical and
chemical properties, oxides and oxoacids of halogens (structures only), preparation, properties
and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides.
Interhalogen compounds (structures only).
Group 18 – General introduction, electronic configurations, occurrence, trends in physical and
chemical properties and uses, – fluorides and oxides of xenon (structures only).
Unit :19 The d-and f-Block elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition
metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals –physical properties,
ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic
property, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; preparationsandpropertiesofK2Cr
.Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration and oxidation states, chemical reactivity and
Actinoids – Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
Unit :20 Coordination compounds
Introduction to ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties, and shapes;
IUPAC – nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism , bondingvalence bond approach to the bonding and basic ideas of Crystal Field Theory, colour
and magnetic properties. Elementary ideas of metal – carbon bonds and
organometallic compounds, importance of co-ordination compounds (in
qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit :21 Some basic principles of Organic Chemistry
– Tetravalence of carbon, hybridization ( s and p ), shapes of simple molecules, functional
groups:-C=C-, -CC- and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur;
homologous series, isomerism.
– General introduction to naming organic compounds-trivial names and IUPAC
– Electronic displacement in a covalent bond; inductive effect, electromeric effect,
resonance and hyperconjugation. Fission of covalent bond: free radicals, electrophiles
and nucleophiles, carbocations and carbonanions.
– Common types of organic reactions: substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement
Unit :22 Hydrocarbons
Alkanes andcycloalkanes : classification of hydrocarbons, alkanes and
cycloalkanes,nomenclature and conformations of alkanes and cycloalkanes.
Alkenes and alkynes :Nomenclature and isomerism, general methods of preparation,
properties (physicaland chemical), mechanism of electrophilic addition, Markownikoff’s
rule,peroxide effect, acidic character of alkynes, polymerisation reactions.
Aromatic hydrocarbons :Benzene and its homologues, nomenclature, sources of aromatic
hydrocarbons (coaland petroleum), structure of benzene, chemical reaction of benzenemechanism of electrophilic substitution. Directive influence of substituents and their effecton
Petroleum and petrochemicals : Composition of crude oil fractionation and uses, quality of
gasoline, LPG, CNG, cracking and reforming,petrochemicals.
Unit :23 Purification and characterization of carbon compounds
– Purification of carbon compounds : filtration, crystallisation, sublimation, distillation
– Qualitative analysis : detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
– Quantitative analysis : estimation of different elements (H, N, halogens, S and P)
– Determination of molecular masses : Silver salt method, chloroplatinate salt method,
calculations of empirical and molecular formulas.
Unit :24 Organic compounds with functional groups containing halogens (X)
– Nature of C-X bond in haloalkanes and haloarenes, nomenclature, physical and chemical
properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, reactivity of C-X bond in haloalkanes and
– Some commercially important compounds : dichloro, trichloro and tetrachloromethanes;
p-dichlorobenzene, freons, BHC, DDT, their uses and important reactions.Unit :25 Organic compounds with functional groups containing oxygen
Alcohols and phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties; chemical reactivity of phenols in electrophilic substitutions, acidic nature of
phenol, ethers: electronic structure, structure of functional group, nomenclature, important
methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, some commercially important
Aldehydes and ketones : Electronic structure of carbonyl group, nomenclature, important
methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions, relative reactivity of
aldehydic and ketonic groups, acidity of a-hydrogen, aldol condensation. Connizzarro
reaction, nucleophilic addition reaction to >C=O groups.
Carboxylic acids : Electronic structure of-COOH, Nomenclature, important methods of
preparation, physical properties and effect of substituents on a-carbon on acid strength,
Derivatives of carboxylic acids : Electronic structure of acid chloride, acid anhydride, ester
and amide groups, nomenclature, important methods of preparation, comparative reactivity of
acid derivatives. Some commercially important compounds.
Unit :26 Organic Compounds with functional group containing nitrogen
– Structure, nomenclature of nitro, amino, cyano and diazo compounds.
– Nitro compounds – important methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical
– Amines : primary, secondary and tertiary amines, a general awareness, important methods
of preparation, physical properties, basic character of amines, chemical reactions.
– Cyanides and isocyanides : preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions.
– Diazonium salts : Preparation, chemical reaction and uses of benzene diazonium chloride.
Some commercially important nitrogen containg carbon compounds, (aniline, TNT)
Unit :27 Polymers
Classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation:
addition-free radical, cationic, anionic polymerization, copolymerisation, natural rubber,
vulcanization of rubber, synthetic rubbers, condensation polymers, idea of macromolecules,
Some commercially important polymers (PVC, teflon, polystyrene, nylon-6 and 66, terylene
Unit :28 Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollutions, chemical reactions in atmosphere,
smogs, major atmospheric pollutants, acid-rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of
ozone layer, green house effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes, green
chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for controlling environmental
Unit :29 Biomolecules
Carbohydrates : Classification, aldose and ketose, monosaccharides (glucose and fructose),
oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen);
important simple chemical reactions of glucose, elementary idea of structure of pentose and
Proteins : Elementary idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins; primary,
secondary and tertiary structure of proteins and quaternary structure (gualitative idea only),
denaturation of proteins, enzymes.Vitamins : Classification and functions
Nucleic acids : Chemical composition of DNA and RNA
Lipids : Classification and structure
Hormones : Classification and functions in biosystem.
Unit :30 Chemistry in everyday life
– Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antacids, antihistamins.
– Chemicals in food – preservativess, artificial sweetening agents.
– Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
– Rocket propellants : characteristics and chemicals used.
BIOLOGY (BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY)
Unit : 1 Diversity in Living World
Biology – its meaning and relevance to mankind
What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids (Botanical gardens, herbaria, museums,
zoological parks); Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.
Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom
system); Major groups of each kingdom alongwith their salient features (Monera, including
Archaebacteria and Cyanobacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia); Viruses; Lichens
Plant kingdom – Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms);
Animal kingdom – Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class
Unit : 2 Cell : The Unit of Life ; Structure and Function
Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/Dictyosome,
Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella;
Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.
Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal
cells. Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.
Biomolecules – Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.
Enzymes – Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.
Unit : 3 Genetics and Evolution
Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete
dominance; Co-dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles;
Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of hemophilia and blood groups in humans.
DNA –its organization and replication; Transcription and Translation; Gene expression and
regulation; DNA fingerprinting.
Theories and evidences of evolution, including modern Darwinism.
Unit : 4 Structure and Function – Plants
Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants;Anatomy and function of root, stem(including modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower
(including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types
of fruit; Secondary growth;
Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell)
and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of
Mineral nutrition – Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders;
Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.
Photosynthesis – Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; Various
pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors .
Respiration – Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport
system; Energy relations.
Unit : 5 Structure and Function – Animals
Elementary knowledge of morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems of
earthworm, cockroach and frog.
Human Physiology – Digestive system – organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system
– organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases. Body fluids and circulation – Blood,
lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery
Excretion system – Urine formation, regulation of kidney function
Locomotion and movement – Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.
Control and co-ordination – Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of
neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands;
Mechanism of hormone action.
Unit : 6 Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants
Asexual methods of reproduction; Sexual Reproduction – Development of male and female
gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents); Fertilization; Development of embryo,
endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and apomixis).
Growth and Movement – Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed
dormancy, germination and movement; Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photoperiodism; Vernalisation; Various types of movements.
Unit : 7 Reproduction and Development in Humans
Male and female reproductive systems; Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation;
Implantation; Embryo development; Pregnancy and parturition; Birth control and
Unit : 8 Ecology and Environment
Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.
Ecological levels of organization (organism to biosphere); Characteristics of Species,
Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax.Ecosystem – Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web;
Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.
Ecological adaptations – Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic
and desert habitats.
Biodiversity – Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks
Environmental Issues – Air and Water Pollution (sources and major pollutants); Global
warming and Climate change; Ozonedepletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution;
Methods of pollution control (including an idea of bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction
of species (Hot Spots).
Unit : 9 Biology and Human Welfare
Animal husbandry – Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control.
Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses,
protozoans and helminths, and their control.
Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;
Basic concepts of immunology.
Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.
Biofertilisers (green manure, symbiotic and free-living nitrogen-fixing microbes,
Biopesticides (micro-organisms as biocontrol agents for pests and pathogens); Bioherbicides;
Microorganisms as pathogens of plant diseases with special reference to rust and smut of
wheat, bacterial leaf blight of rice, late blight of potato, bean mosaic, and root – knot of
Bioenergy – Hydrocarbon – rich plants as substitute of fossil fuels.
Unit : 10 Biotechnology and its Applications
Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;
Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes,
antibiotics), sewage treatment and energy generation.
Steps in recombinant DNA technology – restriction enzymes, DNA insertion by vectors and
other methods, regeneration of recombinants.
Applications of R-DNA technology. In human health –Production of Insulin, Vaccines and
Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy. In Industry – Production of expensive
enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses. In Agriculture – GM crops by
transfer of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including Bt
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